In the US, women have achieved considerable success. Among university graduates, even the most prestigious, there are more girls than boys. Three presidencies in a row America turned to the world with a female face – Madeleine Albright, Condoleezza Rice, and Hillary Clinton were at the head of her foreign affairs agency. Women in the United States serve in the army and commanding positions, and they were allowed to serve in general in any situation, including the most elite units such as the Green Berets or the Rangers. And in football, which they call here “soccer,” women play much better than men.
However, in big business women cannot break through the “glass ceiling.” Although there are enough women among lower and middle managers, there are practically none among managers – only 23 out of 500 executive directors of the largest US companies.
Why is that? Maternity is the apparent reason, really, but not the only one. After all, almost every fifth woman in the United States is childless. Many, having given birth to a baby, really reconsider their life priorities, but not all. Some mothers in the United States are so afraid that people will treat them with prejudice – they say, now she is not up to work – they are trying in every possible way to convince everyone of the opposite: they roam on business trips, and after a ten-hour working day they run to a cocktail with customers.
Of course, male chauvinism also plays a role. Although it is indecent to admit this in the US, there are those who are confident that women are not able to decide the fate of companies and even their divisions.
There are other reasons. I would divide them into indicating that women are not sufficiently bitchy and indicating a surfeit of this quality.
Women, scientists say, often underestimate themselves, their abilities and the assessment of their work by the boss and colleagues. Scott Taylor of the University of New Mexico found that women managers are three times more likely than men to underestimate their work, which they think their immediate supervisor gives them. Ladies believe that they as workers are treated much worse than they are. And speak here about woman’s wit!
I think this is the psychological imprint of the fact that for thousands of years the function of women was to maintain order in the house and raise children. And the contribution of men – whether it is a killed mammoth or a salary brought home – is visible and measured.
Besides, women more often than men are embarrassed to ask for a raise, and less frequently, they took on more responsible work and made confident that they are expected to do much more job.
Sociologists Elizabeth Gorman and Julie Kmech reached the latter conclusion. After interviewing workers in the United States and the United Kingdom, they found that women, while performing the same work as men, put higher demands on themselves.
However, they seldom benefit from it. Participants of numerous experiments (of both sexes) evaluated the written essay as more competent or a summary – as more impressive if it had a male name on it. Besides, many women who work hard allow themselves to be exploited rudely, eventually turning into driven horses.
Nevertheless, those women who managed to get up, scientists say, are preventing the others from advancing. Michelle Dagad from the Oylina School of Business examined the style of female managers works, found that they lacked the desire to give a hand to another woman climbing up the career ladder. Michelle explains it for three reasons.
First, they are afraid that the appearance of another representative of the so-called “fair sex,” with whom they will begin to compare, will not play in their favor. Secondly, women do not want to be under suspicion of favoritism based on sex. Thirdly, there is always a chance that the newcomer will begin to confirm all the stereotypes with which they struggled so hard – to flaunt a deep cleavage and shoot eyes during production meetings.
Especially reluctant women assist pretty employees. A study in Israel showed that if an attractive woman attached her picture to a resume, her chances of getting a job would decrease dramatically. Employees of the personnel department immediately consider it as less qualified.
Head monsters are much more likely to mock women of their gender than the opposite. A study by the Institute of Harassment at Work (there is such one!) suggests that women send their despicable attacks in 71% of cases against other women. Male monsters in this regard do not discriminate – they torture everyone.
And the higher the position, the more effective the woman goes to spit on the rest. In 2012, Marissa Meyer became the youngest boss of the largest company, the most attractive and most pregnant. At the age of 37, she headed Yahoo !, being at the same time on the 7th month of pregnancy. Meyer immediately told the media that she intends to return to the office after a two-week decree, during which she will continue to work. And there were no problems because for her child a nursery was equipped near the office, where a nanny was looking after him. She announced her intention to take only two weeks of parental leave in September of this year, announcing that she is expecting the birth of two twin girls.
All this caused an angry public reaction. Imagine that thousands of women will hear in response from their superiors, to whom they came to ask not 6, but eight weeks of parental leave! And in fact, very few of them will be allowed to organize nurseries right in the office or at work.
So, maybe women should stop being stinks and cornered workhorses and behave just like men? From time to time to demand a raise from the chief, eloquently to describe his achievements, to go with his colleagues to the bathhouse and to use foul language?
Psychologists Olivia O’Neill and Charles O’Reilly found that women were
However, Yale University experts do not recommend that women particularly strain and with eloquence. If talkativeness contributes to men in a career, then women, on the contrary, only hinder. After all, the former is like brilliant orators and the latter – as annoying chatterbox.
Linguist Judith Baxter found that 80% of the jokes uttered by women during meetings were not welcome much but accompanied by deathly silence. And 90% of the wits performed by men are a great laugh. I think it is unnecessary to add the fact of women themselves to laugh happily at jokes of colleagues of the opposite sex and, at best, condescendingly smile at the desire of other women to seem witty.
So what to do? Wherever you look – everywhere a trick. I managed to find only one piece of advice without a false bottom. Career development experts advise women to see a “patroness” about 15–20 years older. Such a woman has already achieved a high position in the company, has matured emotionally and does not see a young specialist as a threat (until you reach her level, she will already retire). Also, she may have a desire to transfer her knowledge and connections to a beginner talent, and in the case of a very young protégé, she can even wake up the maternal instinct.
About the author
Melisa Marzett is an American writer of Ukrainian origin. Thus, she speaks English, Ukrainian and Russian well. Besides, she is in the process of learning German and Spanish while working for